The Full Form of ‘PCR’ in Medical is ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’.
Full Form of PCR
The full form of PCR in medical is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This term refers to a powerful laboratory technique that can be used to amplify or copy small amounts of DNA. It is an invaluable tool for studying genetic material, in particular for diagnosing diseases and identifying pathogens.
PCR works by using enzymes called polymerases to rapidly replicate DNA molecules from a single strand. The process begins with the isolation of a specific region of the genome, which is then amplified using two sets of primers, one specific for the region being studied and another for the enzyme polymerase. Once the primers are added, the DNA molecules are exposed to heat and then cooled repeatedly, allowing the polymerase to bind onto the template strands and create new strands of DNA. This process is repeated many times until there are multiple copies of the target sequence present in a sample.
One great advantage of PCR is that it can be used to detect even very small amounts of genetic material. It has been used extensively in diagnostics and forensic science since its development in 1985, as it allows researchers to detect small fragments or mutations within genes or other sequences that may otherwise go undetected. In addition, PCR can be used to distinguish between different types of viruses or bacteria; this allows medical professionals to accurately diagnose patients with infectious diseases more quickly.
PCR has also been instrumental in advancing our understanding of evolution and genetics by enabling scientists to study changes over time at the molecular level. For example, researchers have used PCR techniques to trace evolution from one species to another by observing patterns in genetic variation between populations over time. Similarly, researchers have compared ancient DNA samples with modern ones to understand how species have adapted over time and how certain traits have become more common within populations due to natural selection.
Due its versatility and accuracy, PCR has become an indispensable tool for medical professionals and researchers alike. From diagnostics and forensics to evolutionary studies, PCR has revolutionized our understanding and treatment of disease on both individual and population levels.
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